The Byzantine Empire was ruled by emperors of the dynasty of Heraclius between and The Heraclians presided over a period of cataclysmic events that were a watershed in the history of the Empire and the world. At the beginning of the dynasty, the Empire's culture was still essentially Ancient Roman , dominating the Mediterranean and harbouring a prosperous Late Antique urban civilization. This world was shattered by successive invasions, which resulted in extensive territorial losses, financial collapse and plagues that depopulated the cities, while religious controversies and rebellions further weakened the Empire. By the dynasty's end, the Empire had evolved a different state structure: now known in historiography as medieval Byzantium, a chiefly agrarian, military-dominated society that was engaged in a lengthy struggle with the Muslim Caliphate.
The Destructive Effects Of Iconoclasm During The Byzantine Empire
The Destructive Effects Of Iconoclasm During The Byzantine | Bartleby
Iconoclasm refers to any destruction of images, including the Byzantine Iconoclastic Controversy of the eighth and ninth centuries, although the Byzantines themselves did not use this term. Debating for over a century whether religious images should or should not be allowed may puzzle us today. But in Byzantium, religious images were bound up in religious belief and practice. In a society with no concept of separation of church and state, religious orthodoxy right belief was believed to impact not only the salvation of individual souls, but also the fate of the entire Empire. Viewed from this perspective, it is possible to understand how debates over images could entangle both Church leaders and emperors.
Autocephaly recognized universally de facto , by some Autocephalous Churches de jure:. The Eastern Orthodox Church , officially the Orthodox Catholic Church ,     is the second-largest Christian church , [a]  with approximately million baptised members. As one of the oldest surviving religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe , the Caucasus , and the Near East. Eastern Orthodox theology is based on holy tradition which incorporates the dogmatic decrees of the seven Ecumenical Councils , the Scriptures , and the teaching of the Church Fathers. The church teaches that it is the one, holy, catholic and apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission ,  and that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles.
The Byzantine Empire near its peak under the Emperor Justinian, c. Thus, Byzantine art includes work created from the fourth century to the fifteenth century and encompassing parts of the Italian peninsula, the eastern edge of the Slavic world, the Middle East, and North Africa. So what is Byzantine art, and what do we mean when we use this term?